Lesson 6 Verbs Ikimasu and Kimasu

In this lesson we will lean two basic verbs, the verb “to go” and the verb ” to come”
To go – Dictionary form  “iku” いく polite form “ikimasu” いきます.
to come- Dictionary form “kuru” くる polite form“kimasu”  きます.
(More on the dictionary form of verbs in future lessons.)

These two verbs are direction verbs and the particle that is used to show where the action is going which is similar to the English word “to” is “e” へ. When used in writing you use the hiragana for “he”へ. Also just a reminder is that subject marker particle “wa” は is written with hiragana “ha” は.

Here are some example sentences to get started off.
Ritsuko goes to the store.
Ritsuko san wa mise e ikimasu.
Ritsuko san りつこさん (a girl’s name)wa は (subject marker)mise みせ (store)e へ (to)ikimasu いきます (go).

That is the basic pattern. Here is a formula for it. All you do is substitute peoples names and the location names. Try to memorize and practice this pattern:
(name of person or object moving) wa は (place going to)e ikimasu いきます.
That is the basic sentence structure. Unlike english you don’t have to worry about 1st or 2nd person verb conjugation like “I go” or “she goes”.

To say “went”  you change “ikimasu” いきます to“ikimashita” いきました.”mashita” ました is the polite past tense. (In future lessons the rules behind verb conjugation will be explained)

Ritsuko went to the store.
Ritsuko san wa mise e ikimashita

“kimasu”  is exactly the same.
Hiroshi will come to the flower store.
Hiroshi san wa hanaya e kimasu.
Hiroshi san ひろしさん (Boys Name)wa は (subject marker)hanaya はんや (flower shop)e へ(to) kimasu きます (come).

So to say:
I came to the flower store.
watashi wa hanaya e kimashita.

So it works exactly the same as in “ikimasu” いきます.

More information on verbs.
The verbs taught so far are in polite “masu” ます form. The masu ます form is the present and future tense like “I will go” as in ikimasu いきます.
The past tense for verbs in the masu ます form is mashita ました.
Like “I went” which is ikimashita いきました as explained above. But what about the negative? That is easy too. Masu ます becomes masen ません . For example “I will not go” which is ikimasen いきません. The past negative form is masen deshita” ませんでした. For example I did not go”ikimasen deshita いきませんでした . These rules are true for all verbs in the masu ます form.

These are some easy basic motion verbs. I will expand on these in future lessons and then introduce another form a verb that uses the object particle “o” を .